Cherokee Christian School

Curriculum Maps

Unit Benchmarks Knowledge/Skills Biblical Integration
Quarter 1
Chapter 1 - Science of Life and God of Life
  • Defiine creation mandate and give examples of its application
  • Define truth
  • Recognize errors that lead to the acceptance of the Doctrine of Humors, the Doctrine of Signatures, and the spontaneous generation.
  • Explain the difference between inductive and deductive logic
  • Describe a Christian Philosophy of science
  • Give examples of the research and technical methods in practice
  • List and describe the attributes of life
  • Differentiate between food and energy
  • Refer to Genesis account for Dominion mandate
  • Discusse proper uses of deductive logic in scripture
Chapter 2 - Chemistry of Life
Students analyze how scientific knowledge is developed. Students recognize that:
•a. The universe is a vast single system in which the basic principles are the same everywhere.
•b. Universal principles are discovered through observation and experimental verification.
•c. From time to time, major shifts occur in the scientific view of how the world works. More often, however, the changes that take place in the body of scientific knowledge are small modifications of prior knowledge. Major shifts in scientific views typically occur after the observation of a new phenomenon or an insightful interpretation of existing data by an individual or research group.
•d. Hypotheses often cause scientists to develop new experiments that produce additional data.
•e. Testing, revising, and occasionally rejecting new and old theories never ends.
  • Define matter and energy
  • Describe the structure of an atom
  • Describe covalent ionic bonding
  • Distinguish between atom molecule, compound and mixture
  • Differentiate between a chemical change and a physical change
  • Differentiate between kinetic and potential energy
  • Explain how kinetic energy affects the physical states of matter
  • Describe how catalysts work
  • Explain how enzymes work
  • Define solution, solvent and solute
  • List the important molecular characteristics of water
  • Describe diffusion and osmosis
  • Explain the difference between acids and bases
  • Describe how carbon can form so many different compounds
  • Describe the basic structures of lipids, carbohydrates and lipids in living organisms
  • List the three main function of organic compounds in living organisms
  • Differentiate between saturated and unsaturated fats
  • Compare the properties hydrophilic and hydrophobic
  • Explain the relationship between monomers and a polymer
  • Describe the formation of structure of proteins using the terms amino acids, peptide bonds, and polypeptide chains
  • Recognize DNA as the primary nucleic acid
  • List the three parts of nucleotide and describe their arrangement
  • Compare and contrast DNA replication and RNA transcription

Start pointing out that the complexity of life points to "design", or a creator.

Chapter 3 - Introduction to Cells
  • Outline the events that led to the cell theory
  • State the cell theory
  • Discuss the relationship between cell size and surface area
  • Differentiate between unicellular and multi-cellular organisms
  • Distinguish between tissues organs and organ systems
  • Explain the difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells
  • Describe the structures and the functions of the cell membrane
  • Describe the difference between a cell membrane and cell wall
  • List the major organelles in a cell and describe their function
  • Describe the nucleus and its structures
  • Relate homeostasis to the living condition
  • Explain optimal range optimal point and range of tolerance
  • Explain the dynamic nature of homeostasis
  • Describe the effects of hypotonic, hypertonic and isotonic solutions on a cell
  • Compare and contrast passive transport and active transport
  • Describe the differences between carrier proteins and channel proteins
  • Distinguish between facilitated and active transport
  • Compare and contrast endocytosis and exocytosis

Review the major discoveries and how the reasoning process used in science is useful in life and Biblical studies.

Chapter 4 - Cellular Processes
  • Explain why energy is required for life 
  • Define autotroph and heterothrph 
  • Describe how energy is stored in ATP molecules 
  • Differentiate between aerobic and anaerobic respiration 
  • Summarize the major events in glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and the extron transport chin 
  • Compare and Cntrast alcoholic and lactic acid feremntation 
  • Describe the structure and function of three kinds of RNA 
  • Differentiate between introns and exons 
  • List and describe the sptes in translation 
  • Differentiate between anabolism and catabolism 
  • Discuss the three types of cellular digestion 
Quareter 2
Chapter 5 - Genetics
  • Describe the impact of both genetics and environment on an individual 
  • Define genetics 
  • Differentiate between a gene and a chromosome 
  • Describe the structure of chromosome 
  • Explain the difference between a haploid and diploid chromosome number 
  • List the phases of the cell cycle 
  • Describe the G, S, and G phase phases of interphase 
  • Lit the stages of mitoses and the major changes of each 
  • Describe the cytokinesis in plant cells differs from the in human and animal cells 
  • Describe the function of meiosis 
  • List and describe the phases of meiosis 
  • Summarize the processes of spermatogenesis and cogenesis 
  • Describe three of Mendel's concepts 
  • Explain the difference between recessive and dominant traits 
  • Perform monhybrid crosses using Punnett squares 
  • Explain the use of a test cross
  • Explain the effects of incomplete dominance and codominance on offspring 
  • Use a Punnett square to predict dihybrid cross results
  • Describe the difference between multiple alleles and polygenic inheritance
  • Differentiate between autosome and sex chromosomes 
  • Explain how sex-linked traits affect inheritance of traits 
  • Use and Punnett square to demonstrate sex-linked crosses 

The Christian trained monk does a tremendous body of work - in a simple envriorment 

Chapter 7 - Biotechnology
  • Define clone
  • Explain the difference between natural and artificial clones
  • Discuss advantages and disadvantages of using cloned organisms in research
  • Define genetic engineering
  • Describe the steps to produce recombinant DNA
  • Describe how recombinant DNA is used in bacteria to produce human insulin
  • Define the stem cell
  • Explain the difference between somatic and embryonic stem cells
  • Define gene therapy
  • Describe how gene therapy could be used in humans
  • Define DNA fingerprint
  • Describe some uses of DNA fingerprint technology
  • Explain how genetic engineering is used to modify plants
  • Describe some potential adverse envirtonemtal impacts of genetically modified plants

Start making the connection between embryo and unborn life.   Contrast the science communities lack of concern for the unborn outstrips some scientists ability to do research.  Recent bias toward the restrictions on embryo stem cell research being an example.

Chapter 8 - History of Life
  • Describe the nature of a worldview
  • Defend the position that all humans have a worldview
  • Differentiate between a Christian and Non-Christian worldview
  • Describe possible conclusions that can result from an evolutionary worldview
  • Understand the developments of ideas about an old earth
  • Relate changing view of geology to the emergence of evolution
  • List Lamarck's theories
  • Explain the two main aspects of Darwin's theory of evolution
  • Evaluate Darwin's theories in light of the Bible's teaching on origins and nature
  • Describe the development and use of the geologic column
  • Explain the differences between Darwinism and Neo-Darwinism
  • Give arguments against mutation as the means of increasing genetic variation
  • Explain why homologous structures do not support evolution
  • Contrast punctuated equilibrium with earlier evolutionary theories
  • List and summarize the most common non-literal interpretations of Genesis
  • Give biblical support for a literal interpretation of Creation
  • Discuss the evidence for a universal flood
  • Describe tosm the most types of fossils
  • Explain the deluge fossil formation theory
  • Explain complexity and co-option
  • Define and explain intelligent design
  • Discuss the importance of a right view of evolution
  • Evaluate intelligent design


Chapter 9 - Classification of Organisms

Students will develop essential reading skills appropriate for studies in the disciplines of science by

a. Reading grade-level appropriate books and participating in discussions related to curricular learning.

b. Reading informational texts, including technical texts as appropriate.

c. Discussing books. Relate information and themes from one subject are to information and themes in other areas. Evaluate the merits of texts. Examine the writer's purpose in writing.

d. Building vocabulary knowledge. Demonstrate an understanding of appropriate vocabulary, and use that content vocabulary in writing and speaking. Explore understanding of new words found in texts.

e. Establishing context. Explore life experiences related to the subject area content. Discuss in both writing and speaking how certain words may have specific meanings when used in particular subject areas. Determine strategies for finding content and contextual meaning for unknown words.

Students will understand important features of the process of scientific inquiry.
•a. Scientific investigators control the conditions of their experiments in order to produce valuable data.
•b. Scientific researchers are expected to critically assess the quality of data including possible sources of bias in their investigations� hypotheses, observations, data analyses, and interpretations.
•c. Scientists use practices such as peer review and publication to reinforce the integrity of scientific activity and reporting.
•d. The merit of a new theory is judged by how well scientific data are explained by the new theory.
•e. The ultimate goal of science is to develop an understanding of the natural universe which is free of biases.
•f. Science disciplines and traditions differ from one another in what is studied, techniques used, and outcomes sought.
  • Explain the need for classification system
  • List the seven levels of taxonomic hierarchy
  • List the major characteristics of the six kingdoms
  • Explain the advantages of the binomial nomenclature
  • Describe the proper method of writing a genus-species
  • Describe the components that make a species
  • Explain the problems with the species concept
  • Respond to the assertion that "speciatiaon causes new kinds of organisms to form"
  • List and describe some of the factors that contribute to speciation
  • Describe the criteria for a biblical kind
  • Expalin the basis for a natural system of classifcation
  • Discuss the idea of "kind" versus species
  • Evaluate the manmade definition of species
Quarter 3
Chapter 10 - Bacteria and Viruses
  • Recognize the significant role bacteria play in decomposition
  • Summarize the differences between the kingdoms Eubacteria and Archaebacteria
  • List and describe the basic cellular shapes and colonial forms of bacteria
  • Describe the cellular structure of a bacterial cell
  • Describe bacterial reproduction
  • Summarize the methods bacteria use to obtain energy
  • List the conditions needed for bacterial growth
  • Describe the methods bacteria use to obtain new genetic material
  • Describe the structure of a virus
  • Describe the five stages in the lytic cycle
  • List several characteristics used to group viruses
  • Compare and contrast the lytic and the lysogenic cycles
  • Describe the difference between a persistent viral infection and transforming virus
  • Explain how viroids and prions differ from viruses
  • Describe two methods of controlling viral diseases
  • Compare and contrast attenuated and inactivated vaccines
  • Describe three viral diseases that affect man
  • Summarize Koch's Postulates
  • Describe the methods by which diseases can be spread
  • Describe how bodily structures defend against disease
  • Summarize the nonspecific defenses against disease
  • Describe the differences between antibodies and antibiotics
  • Describe three major groups of disorders
  • Distinguish between major groups of disorders
  • Distinguish between benign and malignant tumors
  • Summarize three major major methods of treating cancer


Discuss how bacteria are part of the curse and part of the blessing of God


Chapter 11 - Protista
  • Describe some general characteristics of protozoans
  • summarize how some protozoa react to adverse conditions
  • Describe the movement and feeding method of a typical sarcodine
  • Describe the structure and use of cilia in protozoans
  • Explain the complex life cycle of Plasmodium, a typical sporozoan
  • Describe the movement of typical zooflagellate
  • Recognize one key organism of the sarcodine, ciliates, sporozoans and zooflagellates
  • Describe some of algae ecological and economic significance
  • Describe the basic algal body structures
  • Summarize the methods of reproduction used by algae
  • List the characteristics sued to classify algae
  • identify the seven algal phyla and their major characteristics
  • Explain why Euglena might be considered both an alga and protozoan
  • Describe an algal bloom its potential ecological and economic significance

Wonder at the variety of diatoms 

Chapter 15 - Life Processes of Invertebrates
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the nine major characteristics of kingdom Animalia by giving examples of each
  • Distinguish between the three types of symmetry seen in animals
  • Apply relative terms to familiar examples f animal symmetry and anatomy
  • Recognize the relative abundance of species among the major phyla and classes of animals
  • Trace the path of water and food throug a typical sponge
  • Describe how a sponge's body is supported
  • Contrast asexual and sexual reproduction in sponges
  • Describe the two different cnidarian body forms
  • summarize how the cnidocytes function in capturing prey
  • List and describe the purposes of the three planarian body layers
  • Compare reproduction in the hydra Aurelia
  • Summarize the feeding and digestion processes of planarians
  • Contrast asexual and sexual reproduction in planarians
  • List several major structural differences between parasitic and free-living flatworms
  • Compare the life cycles of the sheep liver fluke and pork tapeworm
  • List some of the diverse habitats that harbor roundworms
  • Explain why the Ascaris has been decribed as a "tube within a tube"
  • Compare Ascaris reproduction with that of other worms already studied
  • Describe the major life processes of the earthworm
  • Compare and contrast the leech and earthworm in regard to structures and habits
  • Discriminate among the mollusk classes
  • Describe filter feeding in bivalves using all appropriate terms
  • Compare and contrast movement in three classes of mollusks

Look at the need to have a diversity of life on the planet to ensure the dominion mandate.

Chapter 16 - Arthropods
  • Describe the structure of exoskeleton and the process of molting
  • Describe the typical arthropod nervous system, including all connected structures or organs
  • List and give examples for the four subphyla and phylum Arthropoda
  • List the passage of food through the crayfish digestive tract
  • List three crustaceans other than those that humans eat
  • Name and describe the special mouth parts  that give Chelicerata it name
  • Compare and contrast the arachnid's body plan and structure with the typical insect's
  • List several ways spiders use their silk other than for capturing prey
  • Name three arachnids other than spiders
  • Compare the structure of insects to that of other arthropods
  • Identify three differences between centipedes and millipedes
  • Distinguish between complete and incomplete metamorphosis
  • Know common insect names from each of the six orders covered in the text
  • Compare metamorphosis of the dragonfly with that of the butterfly
  • Describe at least three types of biological controls used against insects
Chapter 17 Ectothemic Vertebrates
  • List and describe the characteristics of the phylum Chordata
  • Explain the major differences between the three subphyla of Chordata
  • Discuss the limitations of being ectothermic versus endothermic
  • Contrast the endoskeleton with the exoskeloton, giving advantages of each
  • List the major divisions of the vertebrate skeleton
  • Name the major structures and functions of the typical vertebrate circulatory system
  • Distinguish between the three vertebrate feeding strategies, giving examples of each
  • Compare the three methods of vertebrate reproduction
  • Name the five major lobes of the vertebrate brain with the major function of each
  • Define behavior as it applies to animals
  • Describe the three main types of vertebrate behavior, giving an example of each
  • List and describe the characteristics of Osteicthyes
  • Trace the circulation of blood through a typical fish
  • Describe the structure and function of the gills in fish
  • Identify and describe the function of four structure of the fish nervous system
  • Explain the steps of oviparous reproductions in fish
  • Contrast the habits of the hagfish and the sea lamprey
  • Name three ways cartilaginous fish are different from bony fish
  • Compare the skates and rays with the sharks, giving three differences
  • Identify one example for each order in the class Amphibia
  • List and describe the characteristics of the class Amphibia
  • Discuss metamorphosis in frogs, suing terms related to diet, habitat, and respiration
  • Compare the amphibian circulatory system with that of the fish
  • Trace the path of food as it passes throught he frog's digestive tract
  • name and describe the four possible means of respiration for the frog
  • Describe frog reproductions including all relevant structures
Chapter 20 - Introduction of Human Anat. and Physiology
  • Describe the basic levels of human behavior
  • Discuss the differences between animals and humans
  • Summarize the differences between anatomy and physiology
  • Demonstrate proper use of anatomical terms of directions
  • List and describe the four basic human tissues
  • Identify the major areas and cavities of the human body
  • Describe the functions of the integumentary system
  • List and describe the layer of the skin
  • Compare and contrast sebaceous and sweat glands
  • Identify the major bones of the human body
  • Describe the anatomy of a typical long bone
  • Explain how bones grow in length and diameter
  • List the major joints in the human body
  • Describe the anatomy of typical joint
  • Compare the three types of muscle tissue
  • Describe the structures of a typical skeletal muscle fiber
  • Differentiate between muscle origin and insertion
  • Describe the function of muscle groups

Discuss the importance of viewing the body as a "living sacrifice".  What does that mean in contemporary society?

Chapter 21 - Incoming Substances
  • Describe the functions of the respiratory system's structures
  • Explain how gases are exchanged in the lungs
  • Contrast the three phases of respiration
  • Explain the mechanics of breathing
  • Summarize the gas exchange process
  • Explain the role of carbon dioxide in the regulation of breathing
  • Describe the relationship between altitude and breathing
  • Describe the functions of the digestive system
  • Describe and summarize the functions of each digestive system organ
Chapter 22 - Internal Transport
  • Describe the components of blood and summarize their functions
  • Explain the clinical significance of blood typing
  • Describe the structures of the heart and their functions
  • Trace the blood flow through the heart
  • Describe the cardiac cycle
  • Describe the structural differences between arteries, veins and capillaries
  • Summarize the different circulations in the human body
  • List and describe the lymphatic system organs
  • Describe the flow lymph through the lymphatic systems
  • Describe the difference between humoral and cell-mediated immunity
  • Explain the function of B cells in the immune response
  • List and explain the functions of the various types of T cells
  • Compare and contrast passive and active immunity
  • Describe the theories of autoimmune diseases
Chapter 23 - Nervous System
  • Describe a typical neuron's structures and discuss their functions
  • Distinguish between the three functional types of neurons
  • Summarize the initiation and transmission of a nerve impulse
  • Identify the two major divisions of the nervous system
  • (As time allows)
  • List and summarize the functions of the seven regions of the brain
  • List and describe the functions of the peripheral nervous system's divisions
  • differentiate between spinal nerves and cranial nerves

The nervous system and the sensory organs represent a pinacle of blessing.  Try to instill an attitude of gratitude for the senses our Creator-God has given us.